Pyu Ancient Cities

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pyu ancient cities

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 info The Pyu city states were a gathering of city-expresses that existed from c. second century BCE to c. mid-eleventh century in present-day Upper Burma (Myanmar). The city-states were established as a component of the southward relocation by the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu individuals, the soonest occupants of Burma of whom records are extant.

The thousand-year time frame, frequently alluded to as the Pyu thousand years, connected the Bronze Age to the start of the traditional states time frame when the Pagan Kingdom developed in the late ninth century.

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The city-states—five noteworthy walled urban communities and a few littler towns have been unearthed—were altogether situated in the three primary watered areas of Upper Burma: the Mu River Valley, the Kyaukse fields and Minbu district, around the juncture of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin Rivers. Some portion of an overland exchange course amongst China and India, the Pyu domain step by step extended south. Halin, established in the first century AD at the northern edge of Upper Burma, was the biggest and most imperative city until around the seventh or eighth century when it was superseded by Sri Ksetra (close present day Pyay) at the southern edge. Twice as vast as Halin, Sri Ksetra was the biggest and most persuasive Pyu centre.

The Pyu culture was vigorously affected by profession with India, bringing in Buddhism and in addition other social, compositional and political ideas, which would have a persisting impact on the Culture of Burma and political organisation.The Pyu schedule, in view of the Buddhist date-book, later turned into the Burmese logbook. Late grant, however yet not settled, recommends that the Pyu script, in view of the Indian Brahmi script, may have been the wellspring of the Burmese script used to compose the Burmese dialect.

The thousand years old civilisation came smashing down in the ninth century when the city-states were annihilated by rehashed intrusions from the Kingdom of Nanzhao. The Bamar individuals, who originated from Nanzhao, set up an army town at Bagan at the conversion of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin Rivers. Pyu settlements stayed in Upper Burma for the following three centuries however the Pyu bit by bit were assimilated into the extending Pagan Kingdom. The Pyu dialect still existed until the late twelfth century. By the thirteenth century, the Pyu had accepted the Burman ethnicity. The histories and legends of the Pyu were additionally fused to those of the Bamar.
Just the city-conditions of Halin, Beikthano and Sri Ksetra are assigned as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, where alternate locales can be included the future for an augmentation nomination.

In light of constrained archeological confirmation, it is gathered that the most punctual societies existed in Burma as right on time as 11,000 BCE, for the most part in the focal dry zone near the Irrawaddy. The Anyathian, Burma's Stone Age, existed around an indistinguishable time from the lower and center Paleolithic times in Europe. Three holes situated close Taunggyi at the foothills of the Shan Hills have yielded Neolithic antiquities dated 10-6000 BCE.

Around 1500 BCE, individuals in the district were transforming copper into bronze, developing rice, and training chickens and pigs; they were among the primary individuals on the planet to do as such. By 500 BCE, press working settlements rose in a zone south of present-day Mandalay. Bronze-brightened caskets and internment locales loaded with ceramic remains have been excavated.Archeological confirmation at Samon River Valley south of Mandalay proposes rice-developing settlements that exchanged with China between 500 BCE and 200 CE.

Around second century BCE, the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu individuals started to enter the Irrawaddy River Valley from present-day Yunnan utilizing the Tapain and Shweli Rivers. The first home of the Pyu is recreated to be Qinghai Lake, which is situated in the present-day territories of Qinghai and Gansu. The Pyu, the most punctual tenants of Burma of whom records are surviving, went ahead to establish settlements all through the fields district fixated on the juncture of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin Rivers that has been possessed since the Paleolithic.The Pyu domain was longer than wide, extending from Sri Ksetra in the south to Halin in the north, Binnaka and Maingmaw toward the east and likely Ayadawkye toward the west. The Tang line's records 18 Pyu states, nine of which were walled urban communities, covering 298 districts.

Archeological overviews have very far uncovered 12 walled urban areas, including five expansive walled urban communities, and a few littler non-strengthened settlements, situated at or close to the three most imperative inundated districts of precolonial Burma: the Mu River Valley in the north, the Kyaukse fields in focus, and the Minbu locale in the south and west of the previous two.The city-states were peers of the Kingdom of Funan (Cambodia) and (maybe) Champa (southern Vietnam), Dvaravati (Thailand), Tambralinga and Takuapa close to the Kra Isthmus, and Srivijaya (southeast Sumatra). All these statelets foreshadowed the ascent of the "established kingdoms" of Southeast Asia in the second thousand years CE.



Beikthano (Burmese: ဗိဿနိုး arranged in the flooded Minbu district (close present-day Taungdwingyi) with direct land access to the all around watered Kyaukse fields to its upper east, is the most established urban site so far found and deductively uncovered site. Its remaining parts—the structures, ceramics, ancient rarities, and human skeletons—date from 200 BCE to 100 CE. Named after the Hindu god Vishnu, the city might be the main capital of a socially and maybe even politically uniform state ever. It was an extensive invigorated settlement, measuring around 300 hectares inside the rectangular (3 km by 1 km) dividers. The dividers and fortresses along it quantified six meters thick, and are radiocarbon dated to a period between 180 BCE and 610 CE. Like most ensuing urban communities, the fundamental passageway of the dividers prompted the royal residence, which confronted east. Stupas and religious structures have likewise been uncovered inside the city dividers.


Maingmaw (မိုင်းမော additionally Mong Mao), situated in the Kyaukse area, was roundabout fit as a fiddle, and has likely been dated to the principal thousand years BCE. At 2.5 km in width and 222 hectares, Maingmaw is one of the biggest antiquated urban areas on the whole Kyaukse fields. It has two internal fenced in area dividers, the external of which is square while the inward one is roundabout. The arrangement of a hover inside a square propose a zodiac sign which speaks to a perspective of the sky from the point of view of the sun, the way in which nineteenth century Mandalay was likewise conceptualized. At right on target, a nineteenth century sanctuary called Nandawya Paya, which was likely based upon the remnants of an old one. The city is cut up by a waterway, thought to be contemporary to the city, however no logical dating has affirmed it. Unearthings—the first was done in 1979—have uncovered numerous relics, including adornments, silver coins, and funerary urns. A hefty portion of the ancient rarities, for example, the coins and funerary urns are basically indistinguishable to those discovered Beikthano and Binnaka.


Binnaka (ဘိန္နက too was situated in the Kyaukse locale, and essentially indistinguishable to its neighbor Maingmaw from various perspectives. Its block structures had a similar floor arrange as those found at Beikthano and other Pyu destinations. Unearthings have recuperated pre-Buddhist relics, gold accessories, valuable stone pictures of elephants, turtles and lions, unmistakable Pyu ceramics, earthenware tablets with composing that unequivocally took after the Pyu script, and different sorts of corrosive scratched onyx globules alongside others made of golden and jade. Additionally uncovered are unmistakable silver coins indistinguishable to those found at Beikthano and Binnaka, stone molds for throwing silver and gold decorative blooms, a gold armlet in relationship with a silver bowl that has Pyu composing on it, and funerary urns for all intents and purposes indistinguishable to those discovered Beikthano and Binnaka.

Both Maingmaw and Binnaka may have been contemporary of Beikthano. The accounts, which don't say Beikthano by any means, do say the two, however not particularly as Pyu urban areas. The annals express that the leader of Binnaka was in charge of the fall of Tagaung, the city distinguished by the narratives as the first home of Burmese speakers.Binnaka was occupied until about the nineteenth century, as indicated by a Konbaung period palm-leaf sittan (record) found there.


Fundamental article: Hanlin, Burma

Halin or Halingyi (ဟန်လင်းကြီး, situated in the Mu valley, one of the biggest flooded locales of precolonial Burma, is the northernmost Pyu city so far found. The most punctual relics of Halin—city's wooden doors—are radiocarbon dated to 70 CE. The city was rectangular however with bended corners, and block walled. Exhumed dividers are around 3.2 km long on the north-south hub and 1.6 km on the east-west. At 664 hectares, the city was about double the span of Beikthano. It has four primary doors at the cardinal focuses, and an aggregate of 12 entryways, in light of the zodiac. A waterway or trench went through the city. Hints of a channel exist on all sides with the exception of the south, where it was most likely not required, as land was dammed there to make stores.

This outline of the city affected the city arranging of later Burmese urban areas and the Siamese city of Sukhothai. For instance, the quantity of doors and arrangement was likewise found in consequent significant Burmese capitals, for example, the eleventh century Pagan and nineteenth century Mandalay. The city's design was likewise found at other contemporary urban communities, for example, Maingmaw and Beikthano in the Pyu domain and Danyawaddy and Wethali in Arakan and additionally later urban areas, for example, Sukhothai, which developed over a thousand years after the fact. Basic stays of sanctuaries at Halin demonstrate that the plan of city's sanctuaries impacted the eleventh to thirteenth century sanctuaries at Pagan. Exhumed ancient rarities indicate Halin's Pyu script to be the most punctual writing in the Pyu domain (and in Burma). It depended on a before variant of the Brahmi script (Mauryan and Guptan). Engravings at Sri Ksetra demonstrate a later form of a similar script.

Known for the generation of salt, an exceptionally prized item in the primary thousand years, Halin was superseded by Sri Ksetra as the head Pyu city-state around seventh century. By the Chinese records, Halin remained a critical Pyu focus until the ninth century when the Pyu domain went under rehashed assaults from the Nanzhao Kingdom. The Chinese records express that the city was wrecked by the Nanzhao warriors in 832 CE, with 3000 of its occupants taken away. Be that as it may, radiocarbon dating uncovers human action to around 870 CE, almost four decades after the revealed sack of the city.


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Sri Ksetra

Sri Ksetra or Thaye Khittaya (သရေခေတ္တရာ"Field of Fortune" or "Field of Glory",located 8 km southeast of Prome (Pyay) at present-day Hmawza town, was the last and southernmost Pyu capital. The city was established between the fifth and seventh centuries,and likely overwhelmed Halin as the chief Pyu city by the seventh or eighth century, and held that status until the Mranma landed in the ninth century. The city was home to no less than two lines, and perhaps three. The principal line, called the Vikrama Dynasty, is accepted to have propelled the Pyu timetable, which later turned into the Burmese date-book, on 22 March 638.[2] The second line was established by King Duttabaung on 25 March 739 (eleventh waxing of Tagu 101 ME).

Sri Ksetra is the biggest Pyu site found hitherto. (Just Beikthano and Sri Ksetra have been widely exhumed. Other critical Pyu urban communities as Maingmaw and Binnaka could yield more relics with more broad unearthings.) It involved a bigger territory than that of the eleventh century Pagan or nineteenth century Mandalay. Roundabout in outline, Sri Ksetra was more than 13 km in perimeter and three to four km over, or around 1400 hectares of involved region. The city's block dividers were 4.5 meters high, and had 12 entryways with gigantic devas (divinities) guarding the doorways and a pagoda at each of the four corners.

It likewise has bending passages, for example, those found at Halin and Beikthano. In the focal point of the city was what most researchers think spoke to the rectangular castle site, 518 meters by 343 meters, symbolizing both a mandala and a zata (horoscope), like in Maingmaw. Just the southern portion of the city was taken up by the royal residence, religious communities and houses; the whole northern half comprised of rice fields. Together with the channels and dividers, this course of action guaranteed that the city could withstand a long attack by foes.

Sri Ksetra was an essential entrepôt amongst China and India. It was situated on the Irrawaddy, not a long way from the ocean as the Irrawaddy delta had not yet been framed. Ships from the Indian Ocean could come up to Prome to exchange with the Pyu domain and China.Trade with India brought profound social contacts. Sri Ksetra has yielded the most broad stays of Theravada Buddhism. Religious workmanship proposes a few particular occupations with prior impacts originating from Southeast India and later impacts from Southwest India while ninth century impacts incorporate those from the Nanzhao Kingdom. A significant part of the Chinese record of the Pyu states was through Sri Ksetra. Chinese travelers Xuanzang in 648 and Yijing in 675 said Sri Ksetra in their records of Buddhist kingdoms of Southeast Asia. The Tang histories say the landing in the court of a government office from the Pyu capital in 801.


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Bawbawgyi Pagoda at Sri Ksetra

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